HOW TO CHOOSE A GOOD UPS

While planning to buy a good UPS, the following should be on your list to make sure you have the correct type of UPS for the correct uses you want to use it for

WHAT IS AN UPS

The uninterruptible power source (UPS) is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source or main power fails.    It differs from a generator in such that it will provide near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions by supplying energy stored in batteries, super capacitors, or flywheels. The on-battery runtime of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short (only a few minutes) but sufficient to start a standby power source or properly shut down the protected equipment. It is a type of continuous power system. It helps to protect hardware such as Wireless networking equipment (routers, modems), Computers, Televisions Security systems, gaming console mobile devices, data centers, telecommunication equipment, and other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption or data loss.  Its range in size from units designed to protect a single computer without a video monitor (around 200voltage -ampere rating) to large units powering entire data centers or buildings.

Why do I need a UPS System?

In cases of a blackout, the UPS switches immediately over to battery power to provide a continuous power source for the battery’s length. Battery life can vary by system and depends on how much power you use. Gives you time to power down sensitive equipment, servers, or even video game consoles without loss of data or progress.

What type of UPS Do I Need?

This depends on why you need UPS and what you need to connect to the UPS  and the size of the load and the capacity and where the UPS will be kept, and the distance.

How Big Does My UPS Need to Be?

UPS has to be large enough to support all of the equipment plugged into it. You will need to find the UPS capacity. Capacity is how much power a UPS system can provide (measured in Watts). The higher the capacity, the more electronic equipment and devices it can support. Your UPS system will need to have enough outlets to cover the number of power cords.

What is agood UPS
What is agood UPS

Do I need a sine wave output from my UPS?

When the UPS is in normal mode, it passes the same electrical sine wave to your connected devices. If the UPS switches to operate in battery mode, it either produces sine wave or simulated sine wave electricity to power your electronics. You will need a UPS with sine wave technology if you want to plug-in the Electronic equipment with Active PFC power supplies may shut down unexpectedly when using a UPS with simulated sine wave output, resulting in data loss or equipment damage. UPS systems that deliver sine wave output prevent unexpected shutdowns and damaging electronic stress. The UPS system come in handy when doing structured Cabling and WIFi solution installations.

An outlook of your UPS

It depends on where you are going to use it. A desktop or compact UPS can hide under a desk, unnoticed. A tower or mini-tower will have a pleasant aesthetic design making it an option to sit on top of a desk or table. A rackmount UPS works well in server rooms.

What types of power problems do I have?

Apart from blackout, many more common power problems exist which makes it hard to work efficiently; hence having the UPS can solve  the problems during working

Roles of UPS

The main important role of a UPS is to provide short-term power when the input power source fails. Its unit is capable in varying degrees of correcting power problems lie the following

  1. Sustained over-voltage or voltage spike When the high and low voltage exceeds the usable range, UPS will start battery power supply to ensure the equipment’s continuous operation.
  2. Main frequency instability by maintaining Speed change of power supply motor caused by the abrupt change of user power consumption will lead to an unstable frequency of power supply. In contrast, the power converted by UPS would provide a stable frequency to ensure normal operation.
  3. Oscillation (noise) is injected in the line by nearby equipment.
  4. Voltage sag provides a stable voltage power supply for the user equipment to ensure the equipment’s normal operation and prolong service life.
  5. Harmonic distortion expected from the line
  6. Sustained reduction in input voltage
  7. It protects power off by converting DC power stored in its battery into AC power to supply the load to avoid inconvenience and loss caused by power failure
  8. It offers surge protection by the void surge from affecting the service efficiency and service life of devices

What types of UPS Systems are there?

UPS is based on what type of power protection you need. The three topologies are Standby, Line-Interactive, and Double-Conversion Categories of UPS.

The modern is categorized into three forms.

1) Standby or off-line

It offers only the most basic features, providing surge protection and battery backup. The protected equipment is normally connected directly to incoming utility power. When the incoming voltage falls below a predetermined level, the UPS turns on its internal DC-AC inverter circuitry, powered by an internal storage battery. The UPS then mechanically switches the connected equipment on to its DC-AC inverter output. The switch-over time can be as long as 25 milliseconds depending on the amount of time it takes the standby UPS to detect the lost utility voltage. It can be used to power computers

Line-interactive

It is similar in operation to a standby UPS. Still, with an extra of a multi-tap variable-voltage autotransformer, that can add or subtract powered coils of wire, thereby increasing or decreasing the magnetic field and the transformer’s output voltage. Line-interactive UPS can manage continuous under voltage and overvoltage surges without consuming the limited reserve battery power. But compensates by automatically selecting different power taps on the autotransformer. Changing the autotransformer tap can cause a very brief output power disruption, which may cause UPSs equipped with a power-loss alarm to “chirp” for a moment. It is the most used UPS; it takes advantage of the components included. Because The main 50/60 Hz transformer used to convert between line voltage and battery voltage needs to provide two slightly different turns ratios: One to convert the battery output voltage (typically a multiple of 12 V) to line voltage, and a second one to convert the line voltage to a slightly higher battery charging voltage (such as a multiple of 14 V). The difference between the two voltages is because charging a battery requires a delta voltage (up to 13–14 V for charging a 12 V battery). Furthermore, it is easier to switch on the transformer’s line-voltage side because of the lower currents on that side.

Online/double-conversion

batteries are always connected to the inverter in such that no power transfer switches are necessary. When power loss occurs, the rectifier drops out of the circuit, and the batteries keep the power steady and unchanged. When power is restored, the rectifier resumes carrying most of the load and begins charging the batteries. However, the charging current may be limited to prevent the high-power rectifier from overheating the batteries and boiling off the electrolyte. An online UPS’ main advantage is its ability to provide an “electrical firewall” between the incoming utility power and sensitive electronic equipment. It is used in the e environments where electrical isolation is necessary or for equipment that is very sensitive to power fluctuations.

It is mostly used when utility power sags, outages, and other anomalies are frequent when protecting sensitive IT equipment loads. Online UPS is similar to standby in basic technology. Still, it has a much greater current AC-to-DC battery-charger/rectifier, and with the rectifier and inverter designed to run continuously with improved cooling systems.

What UPS Systems are Right for me
What UPS Systems are Right for me

How much time do I want electricity once the power goes out?

You will be looking at the length of time the UPS batteries can support equipment through power outages when utility power is unavailable. Keep in mind the number of watts supported affects runtime: the smaller the wattage load connected, the longer the batteries will last. The larger the wattage load, the shorter the runtime will be.

TYPES OF UPS BATTERIES

There are three main types of UPS batteries:

A)Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA),

They are reliable when used in an uninterruptible power supply system. In large power applications, where weight isn’t the overriding concern, they provide the most economical choice.

B)Flooded Cell or VLA batteries

offer the advantages of 20-year design life, handle a wide ambient temperature range (-20oC to +40oC), high cycle life, and tolerance to deep discharges.

C) Lithium-Ion batteries.

Have long been used in electronic devices such as laptops and smartphones, while they are now core elements in electric vehicles’ growth. They are recently becoming an increasingly viable option for uninterruptible power supplies and other energy storage systems, such as harnessing renewable energy, too.

The runtime for a battery-operated UPS depends on the type and size of batteries, the rate of discharge, and the inverter’s efficiency. The total capacity of a lead-acid battery is a function of the rate at which it is discharged,

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