- Point-to-Point (PtP): Connects two locations, usually multiple km, essentially forming an Ethernet bridge.
- Point-to-Multipoint links (PtMP): Connects three or more locations, using one Base Station (or Access Point) and multiple CPE devices (Stations) connected to the Access Point.
PtP LinksThe following suggestions are based on reference distances. Real results depend on environmental interference, Line of Sight, EIRP limits and other factors. The products that follow are sorted by distance; shortest to longest.
- Short distance (0-5 km)
- NanoBeam 5AC-16/19: Recommended for short links, superior performance thanks to the latestairMax AC technology able to deliver up to 450Mbps of throughput.
- Loco M: Good for short distance links. Lowest cost PtP solution, but 802.11n technology.
- Nano M: Very popular product for short links, frequently used for video surveillance due to its dual-Ethernet port capability, but 802.11n technology.
- Medium distance (5-15 km)
- LiteBeam 5AC-23: Recommended as CPE for most cases, superior performance thanks to the latestairMax AC technology able to deliver up to 450Mbps of throughput.
- PowerBeam 5AC: Recommended as CPE for longer distance links, or medium-distance PtP links. Superior performance thanks to the latest airMax AC technology able to deliver up to 450Mbps of throughput.
- PowerBeam 5AC ISO: Very similar to PowerBeam 5AC but suggested for high-noise environments.
- LiteBeam M: Ideal for low throughput links, where connectivity, wind-loading properties, or low price are more important than performance. Non-MIMO device, and only 802.11n technology.
- PowerBeam M: Provides incredible price/performance for medium distance links
- Long distance (15+ km)
- airFiber 5X + AF-5G antennas: Superior carrier-grade radio for long distance links, capable of distance of 200+ KM. Super efficient spectrum use, and able to deliver up to 620Mbps using only 50MHz.
- Rocket 5AC + RocketDish LW: Excellent choice for long distance high performance links. Up to 450Mbps TCP/IP throughput using 80MHz. Distances of 100+ km
- High Performance Backhaul
- airFiber 24HD: For extreme performance, the airFiber 24HD can delivers up to 2Gbps of actual throughput at distances of 2+ km in the 24GHz band, and up to 1.4Gbps in links below 9KM. However, under certain circumstances you can use it up to 20 km.
- airFiber 24: For superior performance, the airFiber 24 delivers up to 1.4Gbps of actual throughput at distances of 5+ km in the 24GHz band. However, under certain circumstances you can use it up to 13 km.
- airFiber 5/5U: Ideal superior performance in the 5GHz band, the airFiber 5/5U delivers up to 1.2Gbps in the 5GHz band. Under certain circumstances it can be used for links up to 100KM.
PtMPPtMP performance depends on both sides of the link, i.e. if you want to reach long distances, you must choose the right Base Station AND the right CPE for each case.
Base StationUsually located on the top of a tower, building or mast. The height will determine maximum coverage. When planning the Base Station, it’s usually ideal to plan for an antenna with the smallest coverage that still covers the desired area. Antennas with a wider beamwidth, covering a wider zone reaching more stations, may be more susceptible to interference, resulting in decreased scalability and performance.
- Low capacity and short distance Base Station (ideal for starters in areas with low interference)
- Rocket M with RocketOMNI antenna: up to 60+ concurrent stations when all devices are airMAX capable. Highly susceptible to interference, recommended only for moderately/highly rural areas.
- High Capacity & High Performance Base Stations
- Rocket 5AC PRISM with airMax AC Sector Antenna: Carrier-grade system for highest performance Base Stations. Eight 45° antennas for 360° coverage. 800+ stations per Tower. Takes advantage of the airPRISM technology which significantly reduces co-adjacent noise.
- Rocket 5AC Lite and Titanium Sector Antennas: High-performance solution for medium-high density areas. Variable beamwidth (60-120°) antennas for scalable growth. 500+ stations per Tower. Uses latest airMax AC technology
- Short distance (0-3 km)
- NanoBeam 5AC-16: Low cost option, short range, but very small dimensions, specially for customers who care a lot about aesthetics.
- NanoBeam 5AC-19: Slightly greater range than the NanoBeam 5AC-19 M and more directive
- Medium distance (3-7 km)
- Long distance (7+ km)
- PowerBeam 5AC-500/620: Higher power device, super directive antenna, better range and lower noise, aesthetically pleasing compared to bulky dishes
- Rocket 5AC-Lite/PTMP/PTP with RocketDish LW: Best performing option, higher cost than integrated designs, can be unsightly as a CPE and supports ISOBEAM accessory for better isolation, which comes with RF chokes. PTMP and PTP models have latest airPRISM technology to reduce co-adjacent channel interference.
HotspotsThe UniFi product line is recommended for hotspot scenarios. It offers centralized management, guest portals, bandwidth limits, multiple SSIDs, vouchers and many other features.
Each frequency has different characteristics due to physics and utilization. Lower frequencies have better propagation characteristics than higher frequencies, and may work better in environments where Line of Sight is obstructed (trees, etc.). However, these bands may also have higher levels of noise and interference, so it’s important to select the frequency that works best in your situation.
900MHz (M900)Advantages and Disadvantages
- + Better tolerance for trees and small obstacles vs. higher frequencies.
- – Usually higher noise levels
- – Only 26MHz bandwidth
- – Not unlicensed worldwide.
2.4GHz (M2)Advantages and Disadvantages
- + Worldwide unlicensed
- – Only three non-overlapping 20MHz channels (1, 6, 11)
- – It’s a very crowded band; there’s a lot of interference from cordless phones, SOHO Wireless Router, other WISPs, etc…
- – 40MHz channels not recommended
3.x GHz (M3-M365)Advantages and Disadvantages
- + 300MHz bandwidth in countries where 3.4-3.7GHz band is available
- + Noise-free in most areas
- – Only 25MHz bandwidth in countries where 3.65GHz can be used.
- – Requires license.
5 GHz (M5/AF5/AF5X)Advantages and Disadvantages
- + Worldwide unlicensed
- + Higher EIRP limits, allow higher gain antennas, and long distance links
- + Large amounts of spectrum available, easier to co-locate nearby devices
- – Weaker propagation vs. lower frequencies when obstacles are present (trees, walls, etc.)
10 GHz (M10)Advantages and disadvantages
- + Noise-free in most cases, very useful when 5.8GHz band is crowded.
- + Very small Fresnel zone
- – Only available in a few areas
- – Licensed band
- – Requires perfectly clear Line of Sight
High gain antennas play an important role in hi-performance outdoor wireless for a couple of reasons:
- They provide hi-gain amplification of the signal power resulting in higher signals and better link quality.
- They are highly directional which gives them spatial filtering characteristics, which can help to block noise – especially important in noisy environments.
- Yagi: Directive, used for PTP and CPE applications. Frequently used in low frequencies, such as 900MHz, due to size
- Grid: Directive, used for PTP and CPE applications. Great wind-loading properties. However, this type only works in one polarity (1×1), so lower performance than 2×2 antennas (Dish, Panel, etc)
- Panel: Directive, used for PTP and CPE applications. Compact design is very attractive in situations where dishes are not preferred.
- Dish: Most Directive, highest performing airMAX antennas for PTP applications. Usually larger and heavier.
- Omni: Provides 360 degrees of horizontal coverage (omni-directional). Ideal for low capacity and wide-coverage AP / Base Station applications)
- Sector: Ideal choice for high performance Base Stations. Offer higher gain and directivity than omnidirectional antennas. Usually offered in 45, 60, 90, or 120 degree options.